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Background References on BA and Public Policy

Page history last edited by Regina Claypool-Frey 14 years, 7 months ago


DISCLAIMER: The information on this site is presented on an "as is" basis, and does not claim to present definitive information, make recommendation or to represent any official policy or opinion of any official body or organization, such as the Association for Behavior Analysis International. Users of this site are urged to consult relevant organizations directly, to verify stated information, and agree that the owner of the site or authors of pages and articles are indemnified against legal liability


Author:  Regina Claypool-Frey


This page in progress, and subject to expansion/reorganiztion.

Articles are drawn from a cross reference of "behavior analysis" and "public policy" in

Google Scholar,

ERIC database,


Search engine of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, using search term "public policy".


Bold titles are available in open access full text.

Regular font is link to abstract, with article available by subscription or purchase.

Ethics statements



Journal volumes

Volume 2(2) of The Behavior Analyst Today.


Volume 28(4) of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.




Individual articles [1]


Axelrod, S. (1992). Disseminating an effective educational technology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 31-35.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-31.

Accessed 12/5/09.

No key words supplied, some descriptors: language and tradition, implementation issues, University factors, marketing problems, creating motivational conditions, marketing behavioral products,


Azrin, N. H. (1977). A strategy for applied research: Learning based but outcome oriented. American Psychologist, 32(2),140-149.

Accessed 1Accessed 12/4/09.

ERIC database summary:  Asserts that graduate training, as well as the policies of journals and granting agencies, supports an approach to research that promotes scientific understanding but does not produce effective clinical treatment. (Author/JM)


Bailey, J.S. (1991). Marketing behavior analysis requires different talk. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(3), 445-448. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1991.24-445. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

No listed keywords

ERIC database summary: Technological talk in the field of applied behavior analysis creates distance between researchers and behavior analysis consumers. The field should focus on properly analyzing the needs of potential consumers, adapting technology to serve those needs, and packaging and marketing products in such a way that they are readily accepted and easily used. (JDD)


Benazzi, L., Horner, R., & Good, R. (2006). Effects of behavior support team composition on the technical adequacy and contextual fit of behavior support plans. The Journal of Special Education, 40(3), 160-170.

DOI: 10.1177/00224669060400030401

Summary at Worldcat.org: This study examined how the composition of a behavior support team affected use of assessment information in the design of behavior support plans. Specifically, we examined if typical teams designed behavior support plans that differed in (a) technical adequacy and/or (b) contextual fit when (1) teams did not include behavior specialists, (2) teams included behavior specialists, or (3) behavior specialists worked alone. Fifty-eight school personnel on 12 behavior support teams from typical elementary schools and 6 behavior specialists participated in the study. Vignettes describing hypothetical students with functional behavior assessment outcome information were used to develop 36 behavior support plans (12 by teams alone, 12 by specialists alone, and 12 by teams with specialists). Results were assessed by 3 expert behavior analysts for technical adequacy and by all 64 team members for contextual fit. Technical adequacy tended to be rated high if specialists alone or teams including a specialist designed the plan. Contextual fit tended to be rated high when teams alone or teams including a specialist designed the plan. Team members ranked plans developed by the team alone and plans developed by the team with a specialist as preferred for implementation over plans developed by a specialist alone. Implications for the selection of behavior support team membership are discussed.


Boyce, T.E., & Roman, H.R. ( ). Institutionalizing behavior-based safety: Theories, concepts, and practical suggestions. The Behavior Analyst Today, 3(1), 76-82.



Cautilli, J., & Dziewolska, H. (2007). Editorial on behavior analytic licensure: General historical issues of why people oppose licensing and the common replies. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 4(1), 1-13.

Accessed 2/16/2009.

Keywords: Defining behavior analysis, origins of behavior analysis, licensing of behavior analysis, impact of

licensing, history, & common criticisms

ERIC database summary: A recent survey by the new PIBA SIG suggests strong support for licensure among behavior analysts. This editorial will explore some of the common arguments against licensure and present some factual information to support or counter those arguments. The four common arguments are (1) licensure will hurt the science of behavior analysis (2) licensure protects the profession but fails to protect the public, (3) master level people do not receive sufficient training to function independently and (4) regulatory concerns. Finally, we will look at the history of licensing and counter history of calls to exclude professions from licensing. (Contains 8 footnotes.)


Cautilli, J. & Weinberg, M. (2007). Editorial: To license or not to license? That is the question: Or, if we make a profession, will they come? The Behavior Analyst Today, 8(1), 1-8. Accessed 2/16/2009.

No listed keywords.


Cautilli, J.D., & Weinberg, M. (2007b). Editorial – Beholden to other professions.The Behavior Analyst Today, 8(2), 111-112.

Accessed 2/16/2009.

Keywords: Behavior analysis, professional recognition, recidivism, offenders


Cautilli, J.D., & Weinberg, M. (2008). Licensure as a postmodern hero. The Behavior Analyst Today, 9(1), 1-3.

Accessed 12/4/2009.

Keywords: Licensure, Behavior Analysts, Professional Practice, Post-Modern, Signal Detection Theory


Cope, J.G., & Allred, L.J. (1991). Community intervention to deter illegal parking in spaces reserved for the physically disabled. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(4), 687-693.

Summary at Worldcat.org: Illegal use of reserved parking spaces represents a major obstacle to the independence and mobility of people with physical disabilities. Using an ABACACA reversal design, the daily rates of illegal parking in four reserved spaces were examined across three types of sign displays: (a) a vertical sign alone or in combination with (b) a message sign that announced the possibility of public surveillance or (c) a message dispenser device that announced community involvement and dispensed politely worded reminder notes. The average rate of illegal parking dropped from 51.3% during the initial vertical sign phase to 37.3% under the message sign condition, followed by an increase to 50.4% when the message was removed. Illegal parking decreased to 24.5% when the message dispensers were first used (followed by an increase to 57.0% when they were removed) and to 23.7% when the message dispenser condition was repeated. Illegal parking in the final vertical sign condition failed to return to previous levels (M = 37.3%).


Couvillon, M., Bullock, L., & Gable, R. (2009). Tracking behavior assessment methodology and support strategies: a national survey of how schools utilize functional behavioral assessments and behavior intervention plans. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 14(3), 215-228.

DOI: 10.1080/13632750903073459

Keywords: behavior intervention plan; emotional and behavioral disorders; functional behavioral assessment; self-contained classroom; special education

ArticleFirst summary: Although functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) have been utilized since the 1960s, their use has steadily increased since the passing of IDEA 1997 which mandated their use in specified circumstances. References to FBAs and BIPs in No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, the 2004 re-authorization of IDEA, and in positive behavioral supports programming has also expanded their use across school settings. Although much has been written about FBAs and BIPs, there is a paucity of research regarding the specific manner in which public school personnel implement mandated practices. The current study examined the variables in which schools conduct FBAs and implement BIPs not yet adequately addressed in the current literature and focused on four main areas: (a) behavioral problems encountered in the school settings, (b) common disciplinary actions taken regarding common behavioral problems, (c) how functional behavioral assessments are utilized, and (d) how behavior interventions are applied. Findings suggest that those asked to conduct, write, and implement FBAs and BIPs rarely received adequate training on the use of these mandated practices. Results from the study also suggest that on-going consultation and evaluation are critical to the successful implementation of BIPs.


DeLeon, P.H., Lofits, C. W., Ball, V. & Sullivan, M. J. (2006). Navigating politics, policy, and procedure: A firsthand perspective of advocacy on behalf of the profession. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37(2), 146-153. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

No listed keywords


Dorsey, M.F., Weinberg, M., Zane, T., & Guidi, M.M. (2009). The case for licensure of applied behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2(1), 53-58. Accessed 6/6/09

Keywords unavailable through this link


Durand, V.M. (1987). "Look homeward angel": A call to return to our functional roots. The Behavior Analyst, 10(2), 299-302.Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords available.


United States. Congress. Senate. 109th Congress, 2nd Session. S.843 Combating Autism Act of 2006 [introduced in the U.S. Senate; 19 April 2005]. 109th Congress. Congressional Bills, GPO Access. 15 March 2007


Fawcett, S.B., Bernstein, G.S., Czyzewski, M.J., Greene, B.F., Hannah, G. T., Iwata, B.A., et. al. (1988). Behavior Analysis and Public Policy. The Behavior Analyst. 11(1), 11-25. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords available.


Finney, J.W. (1991). On further development of the social validity. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(2), 245-249.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1991.24-245.


Fixsen, D., Blase, K., Naoom, S., & Wallace, F. (2009). Core implementation components. Research on Social Work Practice, 19(5), 531-540.

DOI: 10.1177/1049731509335549

Key Words: implementation • stages • core components • dissemination • diffusion • organization change • science to service gap

ArticleFirst summary: The failure of better science to readily produce better services has led to increasing interest in the science and practice of implementation. The results of recent reviews of implementation literature and best practices are summarized in this article. Two frameworks related to implementation stages and core implementation components are described and presented as critical links in the science to service chain. It is posited that careful attention to these frameworks can more rapidly advance research and practice in this complex and fascinating area.


Fowler, S.A. (1992, Sep). Behavior analysis in education, and public policy: A necessary intersection, In Behavior analysis in education: Focus on measurably superior instruction. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole.


in progress Fox, D.K., Hopkins, B.L., & Anger, W.K. (1987). The long-term effects f a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 215-224.


Foxx, R. M. (1996). Translating the covenant: The behavior analyst as ambassador and translator. The Behavior Analyst, 19(2), 147-161. Accessed 12/4/09.

Keywords: language, image, translations, conceptual revisions.


in progress France, K.G., & Hudson, S.M. (1990). Behavior management of infant sleep disturbance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 91-98.


Geller, S. E. (1989). Applied behavior analysis and social marketing: An integration for environmental preservation. Journal of Social Issues, 45(1), 17-36. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords listed.


Needs fix on link; Geller, S.E. (2001). Behavioral safety: Meeting the challenge of making a large-scale difference. The Behavior Analyst Today, 2(2), 64-77. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

Notes at worldcat.org: The challenge of applying behavior analysis on a large scale is addressed. Behavioral safety is reviewed as an exemplar, because numerous industries worldwide are now using this technology to prevent occupational injuries. The basic principles and procedures ofbehavioral safety are presented with language and teaching aids that increase the acceptability of this approach. However, the broad-based marketing and application of behavioral safety has led to substantial controversy and misunderstanding about behavioral technology, as well as various misinterpretations. These issues are explicated, along with a call for action to help set the record straight and give behavior analysis the credit it deserves, thereby increasing its potential to make large-scale differences in quality of life.


Gewirtz, J.L., & Pelaez-Nogueras, M. (1992). B. F. Skinner's legacy to human infant behavior and development. American Psychologist, 47(11), 1411-1122.

Abstract: B. F. Skinner's legacy to human behavioral research for the study of environment–infant interactions, and indeed for the conception of development itself, is described and exemplified. The legacy is largely the practicality, the efficiency, and the comparative advantage (relative to diverse other behavioral and nonbehavioral approaches) of using the operant-learning paradigm to organize and explain many of the sequential changes in behavior patterns conventionally thought to constitute infant development.


Goldiamond, I.(1975) Singling out behavior modification for legal regulation: Some effects on patient care, Psychotherapy, and research in general. Arizona Law Review,17(1), 105-126. Accessed 12/14/09/


Goldiamond, I. (1978). The professional as a double-agent. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,11(1): 178–184. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1978.11-178. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords.


Goltz, S.M. (2003). Toward an operant model of power in organizations. The Behavior Analyst, 26(1), 131-150.

The purpose of this paper is to suggest that behavior analysis can help to explain social power. In this approach, an individual's potential for influence is thought to be partially a function of his or her access to stimuli that can be used as consequences. This access can occur either through direct authority or indirectly through social networks and exchanges. Social power is also thought to be a function of an individual's skill in delivering the stimuli in ways that will have the most impact on behavior. A number of predictions about power based on an operant approach are offered.


Gonzalez, H. B. (1984). Scientists and congress. Science, 224(4645), 127-129.

DOI: 10.1126/science.224.4645.127. Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords displayed.


A Primer on Professional Credentialing:Introduction to Invited Commentaries on Licensing Behavior Analysts

Gina Green, Ph.D., BCBA, Association of Professional Behavior Analysts. & James M. Johnston, Ph.D., BCBA, Auburn University

Accessed 6/6/09


Descriptors: behavior analysis certification, licensing of behavior analysts, professional credentials

Published final version as

Green, G., & Johnston, J.M. (2009a).  A primer on professional credentialing: Introduction to invited commentaries on licensing behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2(1), 51-52.


Licensing Behavior Analysts: Risks and Alternatives

Gina Green, Ph.D., BCBA, Association of Professional Behavior Analysts. & James M. Johnston, Ph.D., BCBA, Auburn University

Accessed 6/6/09


Descriptors: behavior analysis licensure

Published final version as

Green, G., & Johnston, J.M. (2009b). Licensing behavior analysts: Risks and alternatives. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2(1), 59-64.


Greene, B.F., Norman, K.R., Searle, M.S., Daniels, M., & Lubeck, R. C. (1995). Child abuse and neglect by parents with disabilities: A tale of two families. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(4), 417-434.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1995.28-417.

Descriptors: child welfare and neglect, parent training, mentally retarded parents, family preservation.

Abstract: Two families, in which the children had been placed in foster care due to abuse and neglect by parents who had disabilities, were studied. In the first case, the mother was instructed in skills that our assessment suggested were important for her child's survival. The mother readily acquired and applied these skills, a fact reflected both in changes in her behavior and in changes in the child's well-being. In the second case, the parent's incremental resumption of child custody was made contingent upon completion of relevant parenting tasks. Initially, improvements in the completion of such tasks were evident, but over time and with the onset of militating factors, no further progress was made and all parental rights were terminated. The implications of these cases for behavior analysis and the effort to reunite and preserve families are discussed.


Gresham, F.M., McIntyre, L.L., Olson-Tinker, H., Dolstra, L., & McLaughlin, V. (2004). Relevance of funcitonal behavioral assessment research for school-based interventions and positive behavioral support. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 25(1), 19-37.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2003.04.003

Descriptors: Attitudes toward Disabilities; Functional Behavioral Assessment; Developmental Disabilities; Intervention; Bayesian Statistics; Public Policy; Generalization; Children; Interrater Reliability; Coding

ERIC database summary: The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of 1997 mandate the use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral supports and interventions for students with disabilities. Although much progress has been made in our understanding of functional analysis over the past 15 years, the extent to which these findings can be generalized across clients, methods, settings, and response classes is unknown. This article reviewed 150 school-based intervention studies conducted with children published in the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" from 1991 to 1999. Fifty-two percent of these intervention studies did not report using FBA information linked to the intervention. Interventions based on descriptive, experimental, or combined FBA procedures were no more effective than interventions in which no FBA information was provided. With respect to positive behavioral support, over half of the studies targeted appropriate behaviors with two-thirds of them using a combination of antecedent- and consequence-based interventions. Recommendations are made for conducting fundamental research on reliability and validity issues in FBA and determining when, how, and under what conditions FBA procedures are most appropriate.


Hall, V. R. (1991). Behavior analysis and education: An unfulfilled dream. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1(3), 305-316. DOI: 10.1007/BF00947185. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

Key words  Behavior analysis - regular education - dissemination - undergraduate training - classroom ecology


Hassert, D., Kelly, A., Pritchard, J., & Cautilli, J. (2008). The licensing of behavior analysis: Protecting the profession and the publicJournal of Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention. 5(2), 8-19. Accessed 2/16/2009.

No keywords listed. Topic is professional licensure.

ERIC database summary: Applied behavior analysis is a hybrid tradition with roots in many mental health disciplines. Even with these diverse origins, the professional practice of behavior analysis remains distinct and identifiable. Given these factors the professional practice special interest group (SIG) for the Association for Behavior Analysis International has proposed a model-licensing act. The behavior analyst model-licensing act (BAMLA) seeks to restrict the title of "licensed behavior analyst" but not the practice of behavior analysis. This argument has legal basis and precedent. Recently many papers have appeared supporting behavior analytic licensing; however, none to this point have addressed the issues of a licensing board's ability for rule creation and management and aid of impaired professionals, nor their ability to assist in fostering professional identity. This paper seeks to explore these views. (Contains 5 footnotes.)


Hawkins, R., P., Greene, B. F. & Fuqua, W. (1995). Current societal concerns: Introduction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28(4), 399-400. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1995.28-399. Accessed 12/5/2009.

No keywords listed.

Note: volume 28 has a special section on societal concerns.


Hayes, S. C. (1991). The limits of technological talk. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(3), 417-420. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1991.24-417. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

No key words listed.

ERIC database summary: Emphasis on technological precision and methodological sophistication in the field of applied behavior analysis has brought about a deemphasis of theoretical and philosophical concerns. For theoretical development of the field to move ahead, applied behavior analysts must develop the principles needed to describe ways of predicting and controlling the interactions they study. (JDD)


Hayes, S.C. (2001). Why behaviorism, to survive and triumph, must abandon its very name: An open letter. Behavior and Social Issues, 11, 92-99. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords listed.


Hayes, S. C. (2001). The greatest dangers facing behavior analysis today. The Behavior Analyst Today, 2(2), 61-63. Accessed 12/5/2009.

No keywords listed.

Worldcat.org notes: Behavior analysis is the underclass of psychology. It is under-funded, under-taught, and underappreciated. A lot is happening that is positive, but just beneath the surface, there are grave dangers lurking that could significantly worsen our already poor status. I prefer to believe that most of these dangers are things we can control by our own behavior (itself a rather behavioral idea), and I offer this list of dangers in that spirit. As someone once said: if you always do what you always did, you’ll always get what you always got. Behavior analysts need to appreciate the following six dangers and adapt to them.


Holburn, S., & Vietze, P. (2000). Person-centered planning and cultural inertia in applied behavior analysis. Behavior and Social Issues, 10, 39-70.

ABSTRACT: Person-centered planning (PCP) is a recent but popular approach in the developmental disabilities community, but it is in need of a behavior analysis. However, conventional applied behavior analysis requires levels of treatment integrity and outcome assessment that appear inconsistent with the methods and goals of PCP. The analysis would require addressing more socially valid goals with innovative procedures, and it would entail less of an experimental analysis and more of the empirical problem-solving process that characterized applied behavior analysis in its early years (see Risley, 1999). Some of the principles that distinguished applied behavior analysis as an effective discipline may now be interfering with its adaptation to the changing developmental disabilities environment, suggesting the presence of cultural inertia. Applied behavior analysts are asked to consider the contingencies and metacontingencies underlying the origin and survival of their discipline, and in particular, the social trends that may be extinguishing residential behavior analysis practices that are inconsistent with the new paradigm in developmental disabilities.


Holburn, S. (2001). In response: Compatibility of person-centered planning and applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 24(2), 271-281. Accessed 12/4/09.

Key words: person-centered planning, applied behavior analysis, new paradigm, community inclusion, countercontrol.


Holland, J.G. (1978). Behaviorism: part of the problem or part of the solution. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,11(1): 163–174. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1978.11-163. Accessed 12/4/09.

Descriptors: behavior principles, behavior analysis, social control, political psychology, community psychology, ethics.

Notes at Worldcat.org: The form frequently taken by behavior-modification programs is analyzed in terms of the parent science, Behaviorism. Whereas Behaviorism assumes that behavior is the result of contingencies, and that lasting behavior change involves changing the contingencies that give rise to and support the behavior, most behavior-modification programs merely arrange special contingencies in a special environment to eliminate the "problem" behavior. Even when the problem behavior is as widespread as alcoholism and crime, behavior modifiers focus on "fixing" the alcoholic and the criminal, not on changing the societal contingencies that prevail outside the therapeutic environment and continue to produce alcoholics and criminals. The contingencies that shape this method of dealing with behavioral problems are also analyzed, and this analysis leads to a criticism of the current social structure as a behavior control system. Although applied behaviorists have frequently focused on fixing individuals, the science of Behaviorism provides the means to analyze the structures, the system, and the forms of societal control that produce the "problems".

Reply: Azrin, N.H. (1978). Toward a solution: a critique. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11(1), 175. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1978.11-175. Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords.

Reply: Birnbrauer, J.S. (1978). Better living through behaviorism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11(1), 176-177. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1978.11-176. Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords.

     Author's Reply: Holland, J.G. (1978). Toward a solution: a rejoinder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11(1), 185-187. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1978.11-185.Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords.


in progress Humer, K.M., & Crossman, J. (1992). Musical reinforcement of practice behaviors among competitive swimmers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 665-670.


Ingram, K., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Sugai, G. (2005). Function-based intervention planning. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 224-236.

DOI: 10.1177/10983007050070040401

Summary at Worldcat.org: Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) has been suggested for facilitating the development and effectiveness of behavior intervention plans. In this study, the researchers examined whether behavior intervention plans based on FBA information (function-based) were more effective than behavior intervention plans not based on FBA information (non—functionbased) in affecting rates of problem behaviors displayed by two middle school students. Single-subject ABCBC designs were used to demonstrate a functional relationship between student responding and function-based and non—function-based behavior intervention plans. Results indicated that the use of FBA-based intervention plans was associated with greater improvements in lowering the number of problem behaviors. Implications and limitations for practitioners and researchers are discussed.


Jacobs, H. (1991). Ya shoulda, oughta, wanna, or, laws of behavior and behavioral community. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(4), 641-644. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1991.24-641. Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords.

ERIC database summary: The promise of behavioral community research remains vibrant today, but behavior analysts are reminded that there are differences among advocacy, application, and research; there are many forms of research; knowledge alone is often insufficient to foster long-term change; and the complex environments of most community work involve multiple and often competing sources of control. (JDD)


Jacobson, J. W. (2000). Early intensive behavioral intervention: Emergence of a consumer-driven service model. The Behavior Analyst, 23(2), 149-171. Accessed 12/4/09.

Keywords: parents, advocacy, early intervention, certification, public policy


Jason, L.A., & Crawford, I. (1991). Toward a kinder, gentler, and more effective behavioral approach in community settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(4), 649-651. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1991.24-649.

Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords.

ERIC database summary: Issues that impact on the ability of behaviorists to be effective in solving social and community problems are discussed, including use of legislative initiatives to bring about behavior change, sustaining interventions with local resources, and the possible rewards from employing collaborative methods in behavioral research. (JDD)


Johnston, J.M. & Sherman, R.A. (1993). Applying the least restrictive alternative principle to treatment decisions: A legal and behavioral analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 16(1), 103-115. Accessed 12/4/09.

Keywords: least restrictive alternative, treatment decisions, legal issues, behavioral programming.


Johnston, J. M. & Shook, G. L. (1987). Developing behavior analysis at the state level. The Behavior Analyst, 10(2), 199-233.Accessed 12/4/09.

Key words: peer review, certification, state association, retardation, developmental disabilities, para-professional staff, regulatory manual.


Johnston, J. M. & Shook, G. L. (2001). A national certification program for behavior analysts. Behavioral Interventions, 16(2), 77-85. DOI: 10.1002/bin.81 Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords supplied at this level.


LeGrand, S., Weinberg, M., & McIntyre, E.K. (2006). Utilizing applied behavior analysis with juvenile sexual offenders. Public Administration and Public Policy - New York, 120, 391-408.

[google books preview]


Lignon, J., & Thyer, B.A. (1993). The effects of a Sunday liquor sales ban on DUI arrests. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 38(2), 33-40.

[NCJRS Abstract]

Descriptors: Alcoholic Beverages; Drinking; Driving While Intoxicated; Public Policy

ERIC Summary at Worldcat.org: Examined Sunday ban on sales of alcohol in terms of its effects on incidence of arrests for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI). Both visual and statistical analyses supported the contention that the sales ban was effective in reducing the incidence of DUIs. Findings illustrate further extension of behavior analysis to the evaluation of public policy. (Author/NB)

NCJRS database: Researchers presented data in a time-series design, interpreted them graphically, and analyzed inferential statistics to determine whether Sunday liquor sales restrictions affected the incidence of arrests for DUI in Atlanta, Georgia. The data used covered the period between March 1986 and February 1988.

Abstract:     The aggregated daily frequency of DUI arrests for the reporting period was tabulated and an overall chi-square analysis performed on the data; to examine daily differences, multiple chi-square analyses were calculated and corrected for the number of tests performed. The results clearly showed that the frequency of DUI arrests made on Sundays was significantly lower than for every other day of the week except Monday. Further research would be needed to document the equivalence of police staffing patterns for each day of the week and to track the daily incidence of DUI arrests in a parallel community which did not have comparable liquor control laws. 2 tables, 1 figure, and 14 references


Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavior treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 3-9. Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords supplied at this level.


Lutzker, J. R. & Whitaker, D. J. (2005). The expanding role of behavior analysis and support: Current status and future directions. Behavior Modification, 29(3), 575-594. DOI: 10.1177/0145445504273289. Accessed 12/4/09.

Key words: thinking big, history, pitfalls

Summary at Worldcat.org: Although many of the pioneers of behavior analysis thought on a large scale and encouraged others to do so, most behavior analytic projects have remained small scale. The intent of this article is to urge the application of behavior analytic principles on a large scale. This article begins with a brief history of applied behavior analysis. It then describes some early behavior analysts who thought big and describes several examples of large-scale behavioral projects. It then shows how behavior analysis fits well with the public health model and describes how behavior analytic principles can be implemented broadly to combat public health problems. The article ends with some practical advice for behavior analysts on how to think big and speculates on the future of behavior analysis.


Maag, J., & Kemp, S. (2003). Behavioral intent of power and affiliation: Implications for functional analysis. Remedial and Special Education, 24(1), 57-64.

DOI: 10.1177/074193250302400106

ArticleFirst summary: Functional analysis is determining the intent (or purpose) a behavior serves by manipulating relevant variables. There are two major functions of problem behavior: (a) to obtain something desirable, such as attention from others or tangible objects/ activities (positive reinforcement), and (b) to escape/avoid something aversive, such as a difficult task (negative reinforcement). However, two well-researched constructs from the social psychology literature—power/control and affiliation—may be valid outcomes for some students. The purpose of this article is to consider power/control and affiliation as valid functions for some students' maladaptive behaviors and describe how school-based manipulations for testing them may be performed.


Malott, R.W. (1992). Should we train applied behavior analysts to be researchers? Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 83-88.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-83.

Intro: Should we continue the tradition of training nearly all of our masters and doctoral students to be research scientists, or should we provide different training for those who wish to be practitioners? In searching for an answer to this question, the present paper involves informal use of two general approaches of behavioral systems analysis: front-end analysis and feasibility analysis.

Baer, D.M. (1992). Teacher proposes, student disposes. Journal of Appled Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 89-92.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-89.

Johnston, J.M.(1992).  Managing our own behavior: Some hidden issues. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 83-88.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-93.

Intro: Malott's paper seems less a thorough argument about his titled theme than a casual stroll a minefield of issues embedded in almost any discssion of graduate training in behavior analysis. It is easy to find premises and conclusions to disagree with, and developing such critiques might be an educational exercise. In the interest of facilitating discussion, I would like to highlight a few hidden issues and, in the process, offer some additional arguments.

Johnston, J.M. (1996). Distinguishing between applied research and practice. The Behavior Analyst, 19(1), 35-47.

Abstract: Behavior-analytic research is often viewed along a basic—applied continuum of research goals and methods. The applied portion of this continuum has evolved in ways that combine applied research and service delivery. Although these two facets of applied behavior analysis should be closely related, more clearly distinguishing between them, particularly in how we conceptualize and conduct applied research, may enhance the continuing development of each. This differentiation may improve the recruitment and training of graduate students.

Reid, D.H. (1992). The need to train more behavior analysts to be better applied researchers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 97-99.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-97.

Malott, R.W. (1992). Follow-up commentary on training behavior analysts. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(2), 513-515.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-513.


March, R., & Horner, R. (2002). Feasibility and contributions of functional behavioral assessment in schools. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10(3), 158-170.

DOI: 10.1177/10634266020100030401

Summary at Worldcat.org: Two types of analysis were used to examine the feasibility and utility of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) in a general education middle school. The authors used a descriptive analysis to assess whether a group-based behavior-support program was differentially effective based on the perceived consequences maintaining student problem behavior. Twenty-four middle school students were monitored over an academic year as they received a traditional check-in, check-out (progress report) intervention. At the end of the school year, an FBA interview was completed to assess the perceived function of each student's problem behavior. Although the absence of experimental controls precluded making any inferences, the results were consistent with the hypothesis that behavioral function was associated with student improvement under the program. These results led to a second analysis using a multiple-baseline-across-students design to determine if there was a functional relationship between function-based behavior support and (a) decreases in problem behavior and (b) increases in academic engagement. FBAs were used to develop and implement behavior support plans for three students who were not improving under the group-based intervention. The results supported the presence of functional relationships. Implications for the professional role of school psychologists and other behavior specialists, the value of FBA in schools, and the need for future research are discussed.


Mathews, J.R. (1992). Teaching young children to use contact lenses. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25(1), 229-235.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1992.25-229.

Abstract: Young children with surgically removed lenses and extreme nearsightedness can benefit from contact lenses, but their parents may need instruction to teach their children to accept lenses. In this study, 4 children under the age of 5 years were taught contact lens wear using a shaping procedure. Compliance was rewarded with praise and tangibles, and noncompliance was followed with brief time-out for 3 of the children and restraint for the 4th. Three children showed high compliance during an initial shaping procedure, with a decrease in compliance during initial insertion of the lenses. At 3- to 10-month follow-up, levels of compliance were high. Insertion and removal of lenses were accomplished in substantially less time, with little crying and no need for time-out. All 3 children continue to use the lenses daily, and 2 have shown improved visual acuity. The 4th child, who has Down syndrome, showed low levels of compliance with need for physical restraint throughout. Although his parents reported high compliance when he first went home, fitting difficulties and an infection resulted in plummeting of compliance, and contact lens use was discontinued. This procedure has been used successfully at the same hospital with 11 of 13 other children between the ages of 14 months and 7 years 4 months. Implications for selection of suitable candidates for this intervention and ways to decrease costs are discussed.


Mattaini, M.A. (2008). Editorial: Licensing behavior analysts. Behavior and Social Issues, 17(2), 115-118. Accessed 3/25/09

No keywords supplied.


Malagodi, E.F., & Jackson, K. (1989). Behavior analysts and cultural analysis: Troubles and issues. The Behavior Analyst, 12(1), 17-33. Accessed 12/4/09.

Key words: radical behaviorism, cultural materialism, future directions for behavior analysts, world views, psychocentricism, behavior analysis, cultural analysis.


Malott, R. W., Vunovich, P. L., Boettcher, W. & Groeger, C. (1995). Saving the world by teaching behavior analysis: A behavioral systems approach. The Behavior Analyst, 18(2), 341-354.Accessed 12/4/09.

Key words: college teaching, behavior analysis training, behavioral systems analysis.


Morris, E. K. (1985). Public information, dissemination, and behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 8(1), 95-110. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords.


Morris, E.K. (1988). Task force on behavior analysis and public policy: Executive council liaison commentary. The Behavior Analyst, 11(1), 10. Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords.


Morris, E. K. (1992). ABA presidential address: The aim, progress, and evolution of behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 15(1), 3-29. Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords.


Mucklin, J. (2007). Influencing policy development: The whirling dervish of the autism in-home program. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 22(3),223-230.

DOI: 10.1016/j.pedn.2007.03.001


Nelson, C., & Huefner, D. (2003). Young children with autism: Judicial responses to the Lovaas and discrete trial training debates. Journal of Early Intervention, 26(1), 1-19.

DOI: 10.1177/105381510302600101

Summary at Worldcat.org: In the last decade, parents have filed an increasing number of due process hearings and court cases requesting the Lovaas method, an intensive discrete trial training based on select principles of applied behavior analysis, for their young children with autism. This article examines provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to these cases, the Lovaas method and research issues surrounding it, published federal cases decided since the revisions to IDEA in 1997, and public policy issues that have surfaced as a result of the controversial cases. Recommendations for addressing these issues are offered.


Newland, M.C., Pennypacker, H.S., Anger, W.K., & Mele, P. (2003). Transferring behavioral technology across applications. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 25(5), 529-542.


Author Keywords: Transfer; Behavioral technology; Applications

Abstract: Application flows naturally from good science, and behavioral toxicology is no exception. Phenomena discovered and procedures developed in behavioral laboratories are being applied on a wide scale in commercial, industrial, and governmental settings. In behavioral toxicology, this transfer of technology has occurred in an ad hoc manner, albeit with a degree of sophistication. The development of technology transfer in other disciplines is instructive. A symposium at the May 2001 meeting of the Behavioral Toxicology Society examined this issue, and some participants provide their contributions here. Henry Pennypacker examines the issue of whether behavioral procedures can meet the demanding standards required to transfer technology to commercial endeavors and concludes that, under some conditions, they can. He notes that the shortage of well-developed and transferred behavioral technologies results from a lack of understanding of the process of technology transfer on the part of behavior analysts. In the field of engineering, the results of basic research are transformed to candidate technologies that meet standardized criteria with respect to three properties: quantification, repetition, and verification. Kent Anger describes the challenging steps in the trail from the laboratory to wide-scale application—steps that are essential for the scaling up of any behavioral technique. Finally, Paul Mele describes the legal background to patenting and copyrighting ideas, a process that behaviorists have rarely used. Together, these topics identify the requirements and warn of the challenges and intricacies that await those who seek to transfer behavioral technology beyond the laboratory.


O’Donohue, W. & Fryling M. (2007). How has applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy changed?: An historical analysis of journals. The Behavior Analyst Today, 8(1), 52-62. Accessed 12/4/09.

Keywords: applied behavior analysis, behavior therapy, behavioral principles, JABA, Behavior Therapy

ERIC database summary: Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA)" and "Behavior Therapy (BT)" and found: 1) a doubling of the use of DSM diagnostic categories for both, with studies published in "BT" using these in a majority (51%) of titles; 2) a significant increase of studies published in "JABA" focusing on developmental disabilities (from 24.7% to 61.8%), but no such increase or predominate focus in "BT"; 3) a significant decrease in "BT" explicitly focusing on behavioral principles (51.8% to 12.5%) with "JABA" showing a sustained focus on behavioral principles (100% and 100%); and finally, 4) studies published in "JABA" showing little interest in studying newer behavioral conceptualizations (10.8%) in the 2000-2004 five-year period. Implications for the field are discussed and further discussion is encouraged. (Contains 1 table and 5 figures.)


O'Neill, R., Johnson, J., Kiefer-O'Donnell, & McDonnell, J. (2001). Preparing teachers and consultants for the challenge of severe problem behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(2), 101-108.

DOI: 10.1177/109830070100300207

ArticleFirst summary: Student behavior and violence in schools has rapidly become an area of critical local and national concern in recent years. Teachers and schools are expected to cope with increasing student diversity along many dimensions, including cognitive and intellectual functioning, ethnic and linguistic background, and problem behaviors. School personnel will need expertise in effectively supporting teachers and other practitioners working with students with different labels and challenges (developmental disabilities, emotional/behavioral disorders) and be able to work at multiple levels (classroom, school, community). This article describes the comprehensive behavior specialist (CBS) program, which is aimed at developing such expertise among teachers and other practitioners within school and community systems. The rationale, basic content, and organization of the program are described. Positive evaluation data are presented from two cohorts of school personnel who have experienced the program.


Pennypacker, H. S. (1986). The challenge of technology transfer: Buying in without selling out. The Behavior Analyst, 9(2), 147-156. Accessed 12/4/09.

No keywords.


Pennypacker, H.S. (1992). Is behavior analysis undergoing selection by consequences?. The American Psychologist, 47(11), 1491-1498.

doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.47.11.1491

Summary at Worldcat.org: The legacy of B. F. Skinner's life is a natural science of behavior. The generality of its basic functional relations has led, by induction, to the unifying principle of selection by consequences, which accounts for morphological, behavioral, and cultural evolution. This principle both predicts and explains the observation that the science itself is becoming the object of differential selection in our culture. Public policy is increasingly being framed in terms of the effects of consequences on behavior, as illustrated by examples from education, economics, and politics. Survival of our culture may depend on our skill in managing this process.


Reid, D. H. (1991). Technological behavior analysis and societal impact: A human services perspective. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(3), 437–439. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1991.24-437. Accessed 12/4/09.

No key words.


Reid, R., Nelson, J.R. (2002). The utility, acceptability, and practicality functional behavioral assessment for students with high-incidence problem behaviors. Remedial and Special Education, 23(1), 15-23.

DOI: 10.1177/074193250202300103

ArticleFirst summary: The 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments require the use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral interventions and supports for students with disabilities who are the subject of formal disciplinary actions. FBA has been represented by different terms and associated procedures such as functional analysis, functional assessment, brief functional assessment, and descriptive analysis. However, much of the FBA research has focused on children with severe developmental disorders in clinical settings. In this article, we review the available FBA research conducted with students with high-incidence behavior problems in school settings to examine its utility (i.e., effectiveness), acceptability (i.e., social validity), and practicality (i.e., whether FBA can be conducted by direct service providers in a timely manner). The findings and directions for future research are discussed.


Scott, T., McIntyre, J., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C., & Conroy, M. (2005). An examination of the relation between functional behavior assessment and selected intervention strategies with school-based teams. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 205-215.

DOI: 10.1177/10983007050070040201

Summary at Worldcat.org: Although functional behavior assessment (FBA) is widely advocated as best practice in developing effective behavior intervention plans for students with challenging behaviors, there is no compelling evidence supporting the ability of school-based personnel to use the outcomes of FBA to develop effective interventions. In this study, selected staff members from four elementary schools were trained in how to use the outcomes of an FBA to develop function-based intervention plans. They then formed school-based intervention teams and served as facilitators for a total of 31 cases. The same cases also were distributed to three national FBA experts who selected interventions based on the identified function for each case. The number and type of selected intervention strategies were recorded and analyzed across cases. Comparisons between team and expert intervention strategy selection revealed that school-based personnel in this study were more likely to select punitive and exclusionary strategies, regardless of function. Thus, in real-world school settings, the link between FBA and intervention is far more complex than has been recognized or discussed in the literature. Discussion focuses on possible explanations for the finding that school-based teams tend to gravitate toward more negative and exclusionary strategies, even when mediated by a trained FBA facilitator.


Seekins, T. & Fawcett, S. B. (1986). Public policymaking and research information. The Behavior Analyst, 9(1), 35-45. Accessed 12/4/09.

No key words.


Seekins, T., Fawcett, S.B., Cohen, S.H., Elder, J.P., Jason, L.A. (1988). Experimental evaluation of public policy: the case of state legislation for child passenger safety. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21(3), 233-243.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1988.21-233.

Descriptors: public policy, health promotion, transportation safety, behavior assessment, applied research.

Child Safety; Infants; Naturalistic Observation; Public Policy; Restraints (Vehicle Safety); State Legislation; Traffic Safety; Young Children

Summary at Worldcat.org: Observations of children in automobiles were made in seven states before and after implementation of legislation requiring use of child passenger safety devices. Increases in safe seating for children covered by state laws and children under 1 year old were observed in three of the five states implementing legislation during this study. Decreases in safe seating for these age groups were observed in two states, however. Increases in safe seating for children from 1 to 5 years old were observed in four of these five states. Although methodological limitations require cautious interpretation, these data suggest the impact child safety seat laws may have on compliance. Implications of this research for policies on child passenger safety and the importance of exploiting naturally occurring public experiments are discussed.


Sherman, J.A., & Sheldon, J.B. (1991), Values for community research and action: Do we agree where they guide us?. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24(4), 653-655.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1991.24-653.


Action Research; Behavior Modification; Behavioral Science Research; Community Action; Community Problems; Community Programs; Intervention; Public Policy; Research Methodology; Research Problems; Teamwork; Values

ERIC database summary: This paper expresses concerns about implementing the behavior analysis values for community intervention expressed by Stephen Fawcett in EC 602 711. Concerns include inclusion of participants in selecting research goals, methods, and outcome measures; research impact on public policy; tension between research requirements and research settings; and who constitutes the participants in community research. (JDD)


Shook, G. L. (1993). The professional credential in behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 16(1), 87-101. Accessed 12/4/09.

Key words: credentialing, certification, accreditation, ethics, licensing, registration.


Shook, G. L., Ala’I-Rosales, S. & Glenn, S. (2002). Training and certifying behavior analysts. Behavior Modification, 26(1), 27-48. Accessed 12/4/09.

No key words available at this level.


Shook, G. L. (2005). An examination of the integrity and future of the behavior analyst certification board® credentials. Behavior Modification, 29(3), 562-574. DOI: 10.1177/0145445504274203. Accessed 12/4/09.

Key Words: certification • credentialing • behavior analysis • quality control

Summary at Worldcat.org: Proper professional certification and training of behavior analysts who work with individuals with autism is critical in ensuring that those individuals receive the highest quality behavior analytic services. This article discusses the current issues surrounding certification of behavior analysts and describes the important features of the Behavior Analyst Certification Board and its credentials. The article also reviews approaches to the training of professional behavior analyst practitioners and discusses appropriate training content for behavior analysts who work with persons with autism. The interrelationship between training and certification is explored.


Soman, L., Smith, K., & Duenas, J. (2008). The federal deficit reduction act and its impact on children. Journal of Pediatric Nursing,  23(5), 386-392.

DOI: 10.1016/j.pedn.2008.04.008

Descriptors: Medicaid, Katie Beckett waiver


Stokes, T. F. & Fawcett, S. B. (1977). Evaluating municipal policy: An analysis of a refuse-packaging program. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10(3), 391-398. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1977.10-391. Accessed 12/4/09.

Descriptors: municipal policy, public policy, refuse packaging, littering, trash, municipal services, consultants, evaluation, research, multiple baseline, consumer satisfaction, social validation, neighborhood residents, adults.

Summary at Worldcat.org: The effect of a municipal enforcement program to improve residents' packaging of refuse was analyzed in a multiple-baseline design across two areas of a city. The enforcement program involved instruction concerning refuse-packaging regulations, collection only of appropriately packaged refuse, and feedback notices to residents concerning the reasons for noncollection of their inadequately packaged refuse. Both the number of violations and the percentage of residences violating each day were markedly reduced during the enforcement program. Furthermore, sanitation workers considered that the packaging of refuse and the safety and efficiency of refuse collection had improved. This study served as a pilot evaluation of a policy change in the city sanitation department, and was functional in determining the direction of that policy.


Stolz, S.B.( 1977). Why no guidelines for behavior modification? . Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10(3): 541–547. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1977.10-541. Accessed 12/4/09.

Descriptors: behavior therapy, ethics, applied behavior analysis, guidelines, behavioral principles, behavior modification, public concern.

Summary at Worldcat.org: This paper reviews the guidelines for behavioral programs published by the National Association of Retarded Children. The review discusses a number of reasons why guidelines should not be enunciated for behavior modification, e.g., the procedures of behavior modification appear to be no more or less subject to abuse and no more or less in need of ethical regulation than intervention procedures derived from any other set of principles and called by other terms. The review recommends alternative methods for protecting the rights of clients who participate in behavioral programs. Specifically, behavioral clinicians, like other therapists, should be governed by the ethics codes of their professions; also, the ethics of all intervention programs should be evaluated in terms of a number of critical issues.


Stoltz, S. B. (1981). Adoption of innovations from applied behavioral research: “Does anybody care?”. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14(4), 491-505. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1981.14-491. Accessed 12/4/09.

Descriptors: public policy, innovations, diffusion, applied research, technology.

Notes at Worldcat.org: Applied behavioral researchers develop useful innovative technologies experimentally, and yet few of these technologies enjoy widespread adoption by our society. This paper analyzes several instances in which government agencies adopted behavioral technology, identifies 10 manipulable variables that could increase the rate of adoption of such technological innovations, and relates them to the field of knowledge diffusion. Unifying theory and experimental analysis are lacking in that field, yet an implicit technology may exist. 

Reply: King, L. (1981). Comment on "Adoption of innovations from applied behavioral research: ' Does anybody care?' ". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14(4), 507-511. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1981.14-507. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

No key words or descriptors.


Suarez de Balcazar, Y., Fawcett, S.B., & Balcazar, F.E. (1988). Effects of environmental design and police enforcement on violations of a handicapped parrking ordinance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21(3), 291-298.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1988.21-291.

Descriptors: Accessibility (for Disabled); Adults; Citizenship Education; Disabilities; Law Enforcement; Normalization (Handicapped); Parking Controls; Vehicular Traffic

ERIC database summary: Introducing upright versus ground handicapped parking signs produced an immediate reduction in percentage of intervals of inappropriate use of handicapped parking spaces. Results of a police enforcement program also showed consistent reductions in inappropriate use compared with a control site. Implications for law enforcement and public policy are discussed. (JW)


Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1985). A behaviorist's response to the report of the national commission on excellence in education. The Behavior Analyst, 8(1), 29-38. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

No key words or descriptors.


Sutton, J., & Walker, S. (1999). A diagnostician's primer on functional behavioral assessment. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 25(1), 45-57.

DOI: 10.1177/073724779902500106

ArticleFirst summary: Developing effective interventions for students with challenging behaviors may require functional behavioral assessment (FBA), now mandated by IDEA '97. While the assistance of students, parents, and teachers is crucial, it is the educational diagnostician who likely will be responsible for orchestrating the tasks involved in conducting a proper FBA. It stands to reason that diagnosticians, as assessment professionals, must be thoroughly knowledgeable about FBA. This article synthesizes available information from the special education literature about FBAs, including the law and FBA, working definitions, basic assumptions underlying FBA, the role of the diagnostician, the role of special educators, the steps to conducting an FBA, the methods of FBA, and tools for the diagnostician.


Task Force on Public Policy Association for Behavior Analysis. (1988). Recommendations of the Task Force on Public Policy. The Behavior Analyst. 11(1), 27-32. Accessed Accessed 12/4/09.

No key words or descriptors.


Thyer, B. A. (1996). Behavior analysis and social welfare policy. In M. A. Mattaini & B. A. Thyer (Eds.). Finding Solutions to Social Problems: Behavioral Strategies for Change, 41-60. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press. Accessed 12/4/09.


Turnbull, H., Wilcox, B., Stowe, M., Raper, C., & Hedges, L. (2000). Public policy foundations for positive behavioral interventions, strategies and supports. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(4), 218-230.

DOI: 10.1177/109830070000200406

ArticleFirst summary: This article examines precedents that justify Congress in creating a preference for positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports over other interventions in the 1997 Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The authors concluded that the IDEA 1997 provisions are warranted by several well-established precedents based in constitutional law, in the right to treatment and the right to education cases, in moral philosophy, and in democratic-government philosophy.


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General—Executive Summary. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health, 1999. Accessed 12/4/09.


Welsh, T.M., Miller, L.D., & Altus, D.E. (1994). Programming for survival: A meeting system that survives 8 years later. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27(3), 423-433.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1994.27-423.

Abstract: Effective and useful interventions often deteriorate when researchers withdraw their direct supervision. We tested the survival of an intervention designed to produce effective weekly meetings in a student housing cooperative without direct researcher supervision. Chairperson performance, proposals completed per hour, and ratings of chairperson performance all increased when resident staff used a training manual, prompting checklist, and performance reviews. Eight years of follow-up revealed continuing high levels of meeting effectiveness. This study demonstrates a methodology for the direct observation and experimental analysis of intervention survival.


Winett, R.A., Moore, J.F., Wagner, J.L., Hite, L.A., Leahy, M., Neubauer, T.E., et al. (1991). Alltering shoppers supermarket purchases to fit nutritional guidelines: An interactive information system. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 95-105.


Wolf, M. M. (1978). Social validity: The case for subjective measurement or how applied behavior analysis is finding its heart. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11(2), 203-214. doi: 10.1901/jaba.1978.11-203. Accessed 12/4/09.

No key words or descriptors.


Yell, M., & Drasgow, E. (2000). Litigating a free appropriate public education: The Lovaas hearings and cases. The Journal of Special Education, 33(4), 205-214.

DOI: 10.1177/002246690003300403

ArticleFirst summary: Between 1993 and 1998 there were 45 published due process hearings and court cases in which parents of children with autism challenged the appropriateness of a school district's educational program for their child. These hearings and cases involved parental requests for school districts to provide, fund, or reimburse them for the Lovaas treatment program for their young children. The purpose of this article is to examine how these hearings and cases affect the definition of "appropriate" special education programs. First, we review previous legislative and litigative definitions of a free appropriate public education (FAPE). Next, we analyze the Lovaas treatment hearings and cases to identify factors associated with winning and losing decisions. Finally, we discuss the implications of these decisions to provide guidance to schools in adhering to the procedural and substantive requirements of a FAPE. 






  1. Articles are drawn from a cross reference of "behavior analysis" and "public policy" in Google Scholar, ERIC database, Worldcat.org Search engine of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, using search term "public policy". Behavior analysis in developmental disabilities, 3rd. Ed. 1968-1995 from the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Reprint Series volume 1.1997. Lawrence, KS: Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Methodological and conceptual issues in applied behavior analysis, 2nd. Ed. 1968-1999 from the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Reprint Series volume 4. 2000. Lawrence, KS: Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Behavior analysis: Applications and extensions 1968-1999 from the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Reprint Series volume 5. 2000. Lawrence, KS: Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. Behavior analysis in education, 2nd. Ed. 1968-2002 from the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Reprint Series volume 3. 2004. Lawrence, KS: Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

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