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Bkgd Refs on Behavior Analysis and Public Policy - APP -Sports and Recreation

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DISCLAIMER: The information on this site is presented on an "as is" basis, and does not claim to present definitive information, make recommendation or to represent any official policy or opinion of any official body or organization, such as the Association for Behavior Analysis International. Users of this site are urged to consult relevant organizations directly, to verify stated information, and agree that the owner of the site or authors of pages and articles are indemnified against legal liability


Table of Contents


 

ABA International Special Interest Group

 Health, Sports and Fitness Special Interest Group

 

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Policy entities

Centers for Disease Control

Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the U.S. Surgeon General

 

World Health Organization

Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health

 

Advocacy Organizations

NASPE Public Policy Agenda

National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE)

an association of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD)

Research consortium (also granting agency)

 

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Selected references

Texts

 

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Reports

 

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Articles - Reviews

Allison, M.G., & Allyon, T. (1980). Behavioral coaching in the development of skills in football, gymnastics, and tennis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13(2), 297-314.

 

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1980.13-297.

A review of the literature indicates that methods of skill acquisition based on the operant paradigm have been scientifically validated with many motor behaviors. However, these procedures have been limited to the use of positive reinforcement for correct performance when applied to the acquisition of complex sports skills in natural settings. To find complementary procedures to enhance skill acquisition, a coaching method involving several behavioral techniques was developed that focused on remediation of errors. This coaching method combined the following components: (1) systematic use of verbal instructions and feedback, (2) positive and negative reinforcement, (3) positive practice, and (4) time out. Three sports, football, gymnastics, and tennis, were selected to determine the effectiveness and generality of this behavioral coaching method. A total of 23 male and female subjects, ranging in age from 11 to 35, was included in this study. Baseline data were first collected for each sport under standard coaching conditions. Next, the behavioral coaching method was evaluated depending on the sport in either a multiple baseline or a reversal design. The behavioral dimensions selected were blocking in football; backward walkovers, front hand springs, and reverse kips in gymnastics; and the forehand, backhand, and serve in tennis. Behavioral coaching was immediately effective in increasing the correct execution of complex skills in all three sports. Gains of up to 10 times the baseline performance were achieved in each sport. In football, behavioral coaching resulted in an increase in correct blocking performance from a baseline average of 5% to 51.3%. Gymnasts' performances increased from baseline averages of 2.7% to 52.6% across the three skills. In tennis, standard coaching produced an average of 6% correct performance which increased dramatically under behavioral coaching to 57% across the three strokes. The success of the behavioral coaching package used here suggests that a technology of behavior may offer additional and complementary strategies to the acquisition of motor skills in the natural environment.

DESCRIPTORS: standard vs. behavioral coaching, sports skills, natural consequences, functional analysis, physical education, athletic environments.

 

Martin, G.L., Thompson, K., and Regehr, K. (2004).Studies using single-subject designs in sport psychology: 30 years of research. The Behavior Analyst,, 27(2), 263-280.

A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we summarize that body of research, discuss its strengths and limitations, and identify areas for future research.

KEY WORDS: Single-subject research, sport psychology, behavioral athletics, behavioral sport pscyhology

 

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Articles - Technologies and procedures

Anderson, G., & Kirkpatrick, M.A. (2002). Variable effects of a behavioral treatment package on the performance of inline roller speed skaters.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35(2), 195-198.

 

 

Brobst, B., Ward, P. (2002). Effects of public posting, goal setting, and oral feedback on the skills of female soccer players. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35(3), 247-257.

 

 

Harding, J.W., Wacker, D.P., Berg, W.K., Rick, G., & Lee, J.F. (2004). Promoting response variability and stimulus generalization in martial arts training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(2), 185-195.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.2004.37-185.

The effects of reinforcement and extinction on response variability and stimulus generalization in the punching and kicking techniques of 2 martial arts students were evaluated across drill and sparring conditions. During both conditions, the students were asked to demonstrate different techniques in response to an instructor's punching attack. During baseline, the students received no feedback on their responses in either condition. During the intervention phase, the students received differential reinforcement in the form of instructor feedback for each different punching or kicking technique they performed during a session of the drill condition, but no reinforcement was provided for techniques in the sparring condition. Results showed that both students increased the number of different techniques they performed when reinforcement and extinction procedures were conducted during the drill condition, and that this increase in response variability generalized to the sparring condition.

DESCRIPTORS: extinction, martial arts, response variability, stimulus generalization.

 

Kladopoulos, C.N., & McComas. (2001).  The effects of form training on foul-shooting performance in members of a women's college basketball team. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34(3), 329-332.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.2001.34-329.

The effects of instruction and feedback in proper form on foul-shooting performance was evaluated in 3 players of a women's NCAA Division II college basketball team. Players showed an increase in percentage of shots made and in correct form compared to baseline shooting without instruction or feedback. All players reached criterion within seven training sessions. The results suggest that training proper form is an effective strategy for improving foul-shooting performance.

DESCRIPTORS:

 

Koop, S., & Martin, G.L. (1983). Evaluation of a coaching strategy to reduce swimming stroke errors with beginning age-group swimmers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16(4), 447-460.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1983.16-447.

A coaching strategy to decrease errors in swimming strokes with swimmers who had not improved under "standard" coaching procedures was investigated using a multiple baseline design across subjects and swimming strokes. The procedure resulted in a large decrease in errors on swimming strokes during sessions in a training pool. Stimulus generalization of improved performance to normal practice conditions in the regular pool was observed with all but one swimmer. This improvement was maintained during two maintenance phases lasting approximately 2 weeks, as well as under standard coaching conditions during at least a 2-week follow-up. For two swimmers, error rates on one of the strokes showed a gradual increase between the third and fifth week of follow-up, but brief remedial prompting sessions immediately corrected their performance. Some beneficial response generalization to other components of the stroke being trained was observed, but no improvements were found on untrained strokes. The error correction package did not disrupt practice, require excessive amounts of the coach's time, or necessitate the use of cumbersome apparatus. In addition, the coach and the swimmers considered the procedures to be effective, and expressed their willingness to participate in them again in the future.

DESCRIPTORS: swimming, sports skills, behavioral coaching, stimulus generalization, response generalization

 

McCrudden, T. (1985). Precision running: A real shortcut! Journal of Precision Teaching, 6(2), 35-36, 37.

 

McDowell, C., McIntyre, C., Bones, R., & Keenan, M. (2002). Teaching component skills to improve golf swing. Journal of Precision Teaching and Celeration, 18(2), 61-66.

 

McGreevy, P. (1984). From 1-1/4 miles to a marathon: Monitoring running on the standard celeration chart for 31 months. Journal of Precision Teaching, 4(4), 86, 89-91.

 

McKenzie, T.L., & Rushall, B.S. (1974). Effects of self-recording on attendance and performance in a competitive swimming training environment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7(2), 199–206.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.1974.7-199.

Swimmers' attendance at training and work rates were described by their coaches as being poor and irregular. Reinforcement contingencies were developed to remedy these unsatisfactory conditions. Two experiments were conducted. A multiple baseline design verified the effects of publicly marking attendance at practice as a sufficient solution for reducing absenteeism, tardiness, and leaving early. Follow-up analyses showed this contingency to have lasting effects. In the second experiment, a reversal design was used to assess the effects of employing program boards as a means of increasing work output during practice. Work rates in eight selected swimmers were elevated by an average of 27.1% when the boards were instituted. Follow-up evaluations showed that the use of the program boards had lasting effects. Publicly checking the completion of each training unit of work changed the nature of the swimming environment to produce a more productive use of time. The role of the coach was subsequently changed as less time was spent in directing and supervising behaviors.

DESCRIPTORS: No words supplied

 

Neely, M. D. (2002). Anna’s food and stroke chart. Journal of Precision Teaching and Celeration, 18(2), 83-85.

Polaha, J., Allen, K., & Studley, B. (2004).  Self-monitoring as an intervention to decrease swimmers' stroke counts. Behavior Modification, 28(2), 261-275.

Self-monitoring of stroke count by swimmers is a common coaching strategy, it is but one that has little data to support it. Although research has demonstrated that self-monitoring can motivate behavior change, little research has focused on whether self-monitoring can enhance skill development. The purpose of the present set of studies was to examine the effects of self-monitoring on the improvement of a specific swimming skill (i.e., stroke count). Eight adult fitness swimmers and three college-level competitive swimmers participated in Study 1. In an A-B-A design, swimmers were observed to reduce stroke counts by about one stroke per lap when instructed to self-monitor and to verbally report strokes. In Study 2. swimmers self-monitored and visually reported strokes on a dry-erase board. A greater improvement was observed in five out of six swimmers. Across studies, stroke counts generally returned to baseline levels when self-monitoring was ended, and improvements during both self-monitoring phases were the greatest in the weakest swimmers. Limitations of the research, mechanisms of change, and implications for coaches are discussed.

 

Pollard, J. (1982). Celtic pride: A functional definition. Journal of Precision Teaching, 3(2), 45, 47, 48.

 

Reed, D.D., Critchfield, T.S., & Martens, B.K. (2006). The generalized matching law in elite sport competition: Football play calling as operant choice. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39(3), 281-297

doi: 10.1901/jaba.2006.146-05.

A mathematical model of operant choice, the generalized matching law was used to analyze play-calling data from the 2004 National Football League season. In all analyses, the relative ratio of passing to rushing plays was examined as a function of the relative ratio of reinforcement, defined as yards gained, from passing versus rushing. Different analyses focused on season-aggregate data for the league as a whole, game-by-game data for the league as a whole, and game-by-game data for individual teams. In all analyses except those for a few individual teams, the generalized matching law accounted for a majority of variance in play calling. The typical play-calling pattern reflected undermatching (suggesting imperfect sensitivity of play calling to yardage-gained reinforcers) and a bias for calling rushing plays. Bias was found to be a function of both the relative risk of turnovers and the relative variability in yards gained associated with passing versus rushing plays. The external validity of the matching analyses was supported by significant correlations between parameters of the generalized matching law and team success on offense and season winning percentage. These results illustrate the broad applicability of the generalized matching law to problems outside of the laboratory.

DESCRIPTORS: choice, generalized matching law, football, sport, play calling

 

Roane, H.S., Kelley, M.E., Trosclair, N.M., & Hauer, L.S. (2004). Behavioral momentum in sports: a partial replication with women's basketball. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(3), 385-390.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.2004.37-385.

Previous research has applied the behavioral momentum metaphor to men's college basketball. In the current investigation, the relative rate of reinforcement prior to and following adversities (e.g., turnovers, fouls) and periods of time-out were examined in a subset of women's college basketball games.

DESCRIPTORS: basketball, behavioral momentum, resistance to change.

 

 

 

Smith, S.L. & Ward, P. (2006). Behavioral interventions to improve performance in collegiate football. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 39(3), 385-391.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.2006.5-06.

Using a multitreatment withdrawal design, this study evaluated the differential effects of publicly posted plus verbal feedback, goal setting plus verbal feedback, and publicly posted feedback, verbal feedback, and goal setting together on the performance of 3 collegiate football players in practice scrimmages. Also assessed was whether the changes in practice behavior generalized to games. The dependent variables were performances on three wide receiver skills. The results show that public posting with verbal feedback, goal setting, and public posting with verbal feedback and goal setting were effective in improving player performance to a 90% criterion level during practice, and these changes generalized to game performance.

DESCRIPTORS: coaching interventions, sports

 

Ward. P., & Carnes, M. (2002). Effects of posting self-set goals on collegiate football players' skill execution during practice and games.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35(1), 1–12.

doi: 10.1901/jaba.2002.35-1.

The effects of self-set goals and public posting on athletic performance of 5 collegiate football players was studied. All players were linebackers on a National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Division II football team. The dependent variables were the percentage of correct occasions when the linebacker (a) positioned himself to cover a specified area on the field during a pass or from the line of scrimmage during a run; (b) moved to the correct position in response to the positioning of the offense; and (c) tackled and stopped the progress of the ball carrier. A multiple baseline design across behaviors showed an immediate increase in the practice performance of the players and a corresponding increase in game performance following introduction of the independent variable. This study extends research using public posting in sport by demonstrating the effects of player-determined goals and public posting of goal attainment.

DESCRIPTORS: public posting, goal setting, athletic performance, football

 

Ward, P., Cull, M. C., Sweeney, W. J., & Drevno, G. E. (1992). Teaching throwing: Precision teaching in physical education. Journal of Precision Teaching, 10(1), 16-21.

 

  Behavioral interventions to improve performance in collegiate football.
isLibSubscript } ?. Shannon L. Smith & Phillip Ward. (2006). Behavioral interventions to improve performance in collegiate football.. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 39, 385-391. Using a multitreatment withdrawal design, this study evaluated the differential effects of publicly posted plus verbal feedback, goal setting plus verbal feedback, and publicly posted feedback, verbal feedback, and goal setting together on the performance of 3 c
  The generalized matching law in elite sport competition: Football play calling as operant choice.
isLibSubscript } ?. Derek D. Reed, Thomas S. Critchfield, & Brian K. Martens. (2006). The generalized matching law in elite sport competition: Football play calling as operant choice.. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 39, 281-297. A mathematical model of operant choice, the generalized matching law was used to analyze play-calling data from the 2004 National Football League season. In all analyses, the relative ratio of passing to rushing

Behavioral momentum in sports: A partial replication with women's basketball.

Henry S. Roane, Michael E. Kelley, Nicole M. Trosclair, & Lindsay S. Hauer (2004). Behavioral momentum in sports: A partial replication with women's basketball.. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 37, 385-390. Previous research has applied the behavioral momentum metaphor to men’s college basketball. In the current investigation, the relative rate of reinforcement prior to and following adversities (e.g. turnovers, fou

  The effects of form training on foul-shooting performance in members of a women's college basketball team.
Kladopoulos, C. N. & McComas, J. J. (2001). The effects of form training on foul-shooting performance in members of a women's college basketball team.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 34, 329-332. The effects of instruction and feedback in proper form on foul-shooting performance was evaluated in 3 players of a women's NCAA Division II college basketball team. Players showed an increase in percentage of shots made and in correct f
 
8.

An application of the matching law to evaluate the allocation of two- and three-point shots by college basketball players.
Vollmer, T. R. & Bourret, J. (2000). An application of the matching law to evaluate the allocation of two- and three-point shots by college basketball players.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 33, 137-150. We applied the matching equation to evaluate the allocation of two- and three-point shots by male and female college basketball players from a large Division 1 university. The matching law predicts that the proportion of shots taken from

  The effects of attentional shift training on the execution of soccer skills: A preliminary investigation.
Ziegler, S. G. (1994). The effects of attentional shift training on the execution of soccer skills: A preliminary investigation.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 27, 545-552. One of the most important skills in soccer is the ability to respond quickly and accurately to the changing demands of the competitive environment (i.e. position of ball, teammates, opponents) A multiple baseline design across 4 male collegiate soccer players wa
 
12. Team sports for the severely retarded: Training a side-of-the-foot soccer pass using a maximum-to-minimum prompt reduction strategy.
Luyben, P. D. Funk, D. M. Morgan, J. K. Clark, K. A. & Delulio, D. W. (1986). Team sports for the severely retarded: Training a side-of-the-foot soccer pass using a maximum-to-minimum prompt reduction strategy.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 19, 431-436. A program to teach three severely retarded adults to use a side-of-the-foot soccer pass was evaluated. A 9-step stimulus-response chain was taught using forward chaining. In contrast to u
 
13. Behavioral coaching in the development of skills in football, gymnastics, and tennis.
Allison, M. G. & Ayllon, T. (1980). Behavioral coaching in the development of skills in football, gymnastics, and tennis.. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 13, 297-314. A review of the literature indicates that methods of skill acquisition based on the operant paradigm have been scientifically validated with many motor behaviors. However, these procedures have been limited to the use of positive reinforcement for correct perfor
 
14. Video modeling by experts with video feedback to enhance gymnastics skills.
isLibSubscript } ?. Eva Boyer, Raymond G. Miltenberger, Catherine Batsche, & Victoria Fogel.. Video modeling by experts with video feedback to enhance gymnastics skills.. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 42, 855-860. The effects of combining video modeling by experts with video feedback were analyzed with 4 female competitive gymnasts (7 to 10 years old) in a multiple baseline design across behaviors. During the intervention,
  Behavioral management of exercise training in vascular headache patients: An investigation of exercise adherence and headache activity.
Fitterling, J. M. Martin, J. E. Gramling, S. Cole, P. & Milan, M. A. (1988). Behavioral management of exercise training in vascular headache patients: An investigation of exercise adherence and headache activity.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 21, 9-19. A behavioral package was used to shape and maintain the adherence of 5 subjects with vascular headache to a program of aerobic exercise training. Repeated measures o
  Independent and social play among profoundly mentally retarded adults: Training, maintenance, generalization, and long-term follow-up.
Singh, N. N. & Millichamp, C. J. (1987). Independent and social play among profoundly mentally retarded adults: Training, maintenance, generalization, and long-term follow-up.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 20, 23-34. Play skills were taught to eight profoundly mentally retarded adults in two interrelated experiments. In Experiment 1, a multiple baseline across subjects design was used to assess the efficacy of verbal and physic
 
49. Team sports for the severely retarded: Training a side-of-the-foot soccer pass using a maximum-to-minimum prompt reduction strategy.
Luyben, P. D. Funk, D. M. Morgan, J. K. Clark, K. A. & Delulio, D. W. (1986). Team sports for the severely retarded: Training a side-of-the-foot soccer pass using a maximum-to-minimum prompt reduction strategy.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 19, 431-436. A program to teach three severely retarded adults to use a side-of-the-foot soccer pass was evaluated. A 9-step stimulus-response chain was taught using forward chaining. In contrast to u
  Behavioral management of exercise: Contracting for aerobic points.
Wysocki, T. Hall, G. Iwata, B. & Riordan, M. (1979). Behavioral management of exercise: Contracting for aerobic points.. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 12, 55-64. Behavioral contracting was used to encourage physical exercise among college students in a multiple-baseline design. Subjects deposited items of personal value with the experimenters, which they could earn back on fulfillment of two types of contract contingencies
  Improving job performance of neighborhood youth corps aides in an urban recreation program.
Pierce, C. H. & Risley, T. R. (1974). Improving job performance of neighborhood youth corps aides in an urban recreation program.. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 7, 207-215. In most federal job training and employment programs, trainees' pay is not contingent on job performance, but upon physical presence. This study sought to increase the job performance of seven Neighborhood Youth Corps workers being paid an hourly wage for serving
  Reducing indices of unhappiness among individuals with profound multiple disabilities during therapeutic exercise routines.
Green, C. W. & Reid, D. H. (1999). Reducing indices of unhappiness among individuals with profound multiple disabilities during therapeutic exercise routines.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 32, 137-147. A program was developed to reduce indices of unhappiness that accompanied therapeutic exercise routines among people with profound multiple disabilities. Indices of unhappiness were recorded, using an observation system that had been val
  Effects of a variable-ratio reinforcement schedule with changing criteria on exercise in obese and nonobese boys.
De Luca, R. V. & Holborn, S. W. (1992). Effects of a variable-ratio reinforcement schedule with changing criteria on exercise in obese and nonobese boys.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 25, 671-679. The effects of a variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement on pedaling a stationary exercise bicycle were examined. Three obese and three nonobese 11-year-old boys were individually tested five times weekly for approximately 12 weeks. A c
 
16. Strategies to increase exercise-report correspondence by boys with moderate mental retardation: Collateral changes in intention-exercise correspondence.
Wilson, P. G. Rusch, F. R. & Lee, S. (1992). Strategies to increase exercise-report correspondence by boys with moderate mental retardation: Collateral changes in intention-exercise correspondence.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 25, 681-690. Correspondence between verbal and nonverbal behavior in an exercise room was taught to 4 13-year-old boys diagnosed with moderate mental retardation. Participants were asked prior to each
 

Behavioral management of exercise: Contracting for aerobic points.
Wysocki, T. Hall, G. Iwata, B. & Riordan, M. (1979). Behavioral management of exercise: Contracting for aerobic points.. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 12, 55-64. Behavioral contracting was used to encourage physical exercise among college students in a multiple-baseline design. Subjects deposited items of personal value with the experimenters, which they could earn back on fulfillment of two types of contract

 

 

Pedometers and brief e-counseling: Increasing physical activity for overweight adults.
Jeffrey J. VanWormer (2004). Pedometers and brief e-counseling: Increasing physical activity for overweight adults.. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,. 37, 421-425. Physical inactivity has emerged as a public health epidemic and is associated with the rising obesity rate. A multiple-treatments reversal design was utilized to test whether pedometer-aided self-monitoring and brief e-counseling could help 3 overweight adults i

 

 

  • An Unexpected Effect Of Recording Frequency In Reactive Self-Monitoring.
    Thomas S. Critchfield.

    (1999) 32: 389-391.
  • The effects of attentional shift training on the execution of soccer skills: A preliminary investigation.
    Susan G. Ziegler.

    (1994) 27: 545-552.
  • Effects of stimulus cueing on the acquisition of groundstrokes by beginning tennis players.
    Susan G. Ziegler.

    (1987) 20: 405-411.
  • A behavioral approach to coaching football: Improving the play execution of the offensive backfield on a youth football team.
    Judi Komaki and Fred T. Barnett.

    (1977) 10: 657-664.
  • Contingency management of toothbrushing behavior in a summer camp for children.
    Kennan A. Lattal.

    (1969) 2: 195-198.

contingencies

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